The Zakah of Fitr is due on every Muslim who is alive part of Ramadan and part of Shawwal (the month after Ramadan.)
The man must pay the Zakah of Fitr for his wife, non-pubescent children, and poor Muslim parents.
it is recommended to pay it during the day of the Feast and before the EID Prayer, because this mends the hearts of the poor people before the Prayer. It is prohibited to delay paying the Fitr Zakah until after the sunset of the day of the Feast without a valid excuse.
Zakah must be paid to the eight categories of Muslims deserving of Zakah as mentioned explicitly in the Qur’an (Surat at-Tawbah, Verse 61):
إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ
Among the eight types which are most common today are:
Al-Fuqara’: Those (who are poor) who earn less than half their basic needs.
Al-Masakin: Those (who are poor) who earn half, but less than what meets all their basic needs.
Al-Mu’allafatu Qulubuhum: The new converts to Islam whose hearts are to be reconciled.
Al-Gharimun: Those who are unable to pay their debts.
Ibn-us-Sabil: The travelers who do not have enough to enable them to reach their destination.
It is neither permissible nor valid to pay Zakah to other than the eight types of Muslims specifically mentioned in the above verse. That is why it is not valid to pay Zakah to any charitable project, hospital, or the like to meet this obligation
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